New Frontiers of Leadership
By George Graen
Contents: Leadership and Flexible Organizational Structures: The Future is Now, Anson Seers. A New Approach to Team Leadership: Upward, Downward and Horizontal Differentiation, George B. Graen, Chun Hui, and Elizabeth T. Taylor. Two Faces of Excellence: Perfection versus Eminence, Avraham N. Kluger and Yoav Ganzach. Leader—Member Exchange in a Total Service Industry: The Hospitality Business, Carl P. Borchgrevink. Asian Model of Managerial Efficacy and Leadership: A Glimpse into the Future, Mitsuru Wakabayashi, Ziguang Chen, and George B. Graen. LMX in Germany: Theoretical and Empirical Reception of a Dyadic Leadership Approach, Birgit Schyns. The Complexity of Communication in Leader—Member Exchanges, Michael W. Kramer. Leader—Member Exchange and Organizational Justice: A New Approach, Rudolph J. Sanchez and Zinta S. Byrne. A New Approach to Intercultural Cooperation, George B. Graen, Chun Hui, & Qing Liang Gu.
Chapter 9: A New Approach to Intercultural Cooperation
Historically, intercultural cooperation has been achieved through the domination of one culture by the other. This approach has numerous dysfunctional outcomes including resistance using violent and nonviolent means. A new approach called “Third Culture” that seeks to offend neither culture and capitalize on the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of both is offered. This chapter focuses on Eastern and Western cultural cooperation attempts and illustrates the usefulness of the “Third Culture” way in situations involving two strong cultures. Acknowledging the 21st century’s need for flexible organizational structure (Seers, Chapter 1, this volume) to cope with the turbulence of the knowledge economy, this new approach seeks to develop emergent flexible structures that can integrate the requirements of two or more cultures in ways that produce mutually gratifying intercultural cooperation.
Organizations that solve the riddle of developing a process to encourage the emergence of flexible organizational structures to successfully integrate two or more strong cultures are needed to cope with the international challenges of the knowledge economy. Asia has been the testing ground for many attempts to find such a process. In this chapter, we review a new approach to this complex mission that we call the “Third Culture Way.”
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George Graen began his career at the University of Minnesota (Minneapolis), where he published two articles in Journal of Applied Psychology, won a James McKeen Cattell Award from the Society of Industrial Organizational Psychology, and a McKinsey Award for doctorial dissertation, before he received his Ph.D. in Organizational Psychology. In 1967 he joined the Psychology Department and the Labor and Industrial Relations Center faculties at the University of Illinois (Champaign). In 1977, he was appointed Department Head and founded the International Leadership Center at the University of Cincinnati. In 1984 he received the first Japanese funded Johnson Wax Fulbright Research Fellowship. For the last ten years he and his cross-cultural research and consulting team have been engaged in projects to understand business ventures in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan and to help build effective local “Third Cultures” to enhance their sustainable competitiveness. In 1997 he was named the Gene Brauns Endowed Chair Professor of International Management at the University of Louisiana. He has published over one hundred and seventy-five professional articles and books.
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